How is forward purchase recognised in INREV NAV?
Forward purchase: A contractual arrangement between an investment vehicle and a developer to develop a real asset (irrespective of whether or not the land is owned or leased by the investment vehicle) at a determined price with delivery in the future.
Forward funding: A subset of forward purchase, forward funding is a specific contractual agreement with a developer where the investment vehicle will finance the development from start to completion with the end goal of contributing the real asset to the investment vehicle.
Financing arrangements without an automatic transfer of the real asset (once construction is completed) to the investment vehicle are not seen as a forward purchase.
The actual transfer of the real asset can have different forms such as a direct contribution of the real asset to the investment vehicle or an indirect contribution via a transfer of ownership rights of an entity that owns the real asset.
Assessment for inclusion into INREV NAV:
INREV NAV reflects a more accurate economic value of the investment (units) based on the fair value of the underlying assets and liabilities, as at the balance sheet date, as adjusted for the spreading of costs that will benefit different generations of investors.
Based on this principle, after certain criteria are met (for instance more than 50% probability of completion of the development), the more accurate economic value of a forward purchase should be taken into consideration in the calculation of INREV NAV, also in cases where under IFRS or other GAAP no assets are accounted for at balance sheet date.
Forward purchase arrangements can take various legal forms under different terms and conditions. For assessing whether a forward purchase arrangement should be accounted for, at fair value, when calculating an INREV NAV, three main aspects should be considered by the investment manager:
- Legal rights to purchase the real asset once construction is completed;
- Probability to start the development project and complete it according to plan;
- Determining a reliable fair value for the investment property under construction (reference is made to IVS/ RICS, and the Property Valuation module of the INREV Guidelines).
In instances where the land and respective development are recognized as an asset in the vehicle’s financial statements throughout the development stage, no additional adjustment may be required when calculating an INREV NAV. If the land and respective development are recognized as a financial instrument or prepayment in the vehicle’s financial statements, or in cases where recognition of the real estate asset occurs at completion (when it is contributed to the fund balance sheet), additional adjustments should be considered when calculating an INREV NAV.
Irrespective of the legal contracts and forms, an assessment should be made by the investment manager as to whether the actual terms and conditions of their particular forward purchase arrangement apply to the considerations included in this Q&A.
Where to reflect forward purchase adjustments into the INREV NAV?
There is currently no specific INREV NAV adjustment line for forward purchase arrangements.
The investment manager should include any additional adjustments related to Forward Purchase arrangements in the calculation of INREV NAV under the INREV NAV adjustment N) Contractual fees.
Contractual arrangements may not meet the criteria for recognition as an asset, provision or liability in accordance with IFRS / other GAAP at reporting date. The adjustment will then represent the impact on NAV of the revaluation of contractual arrangements to fair value.